The Kachemak Bay and Fox River Flats Critical Habitat Areas (CHAs) were established in 1974 (AS 16.20.590) and 1972 (AS 16.20.580) respectively, by the Alaska Legislature in order to protect the area's fish and wildlife populations and their habitats. The Kachemak Bay CHA encompasses most of tidelands, submerged lands (lands below mean high water), and waters in Kachemak Bay east of a line drawn from Anchor Point to Point Pogibshi, but excludes tidelands in an area adjacent to the Homer Harbor. The Fox River Flats CHA includes both uplands and tidelands in the estuarine area of the Bradley and Fox Rivers, at the head of Kachemak Bay. Together, these two CHAs protect important habitat for shellfish, fish, marine mammals, and tens of thousands of shorebirds, sea birds, and waterfowl. The CHAs are co-managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and Alaska Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under their respective authorities.